Jn. Raisal Haq, Graduate Student of Biology Departement, IPB Graduate School (Bogor Agricultural University) Jl. Raya Dramaga PO BOX 16680 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AS AN ADDITIONAL TOOL FOR IDENTIFY NEPENTHES (NEPENTHECEAE)
Nepenthes is a tropical pitcher plant naturally native in Malaysia, India, Australia and Indonesia. Nepenthes is genus of carnivorous plant because this plant need the nutrition from small insect or most flies to provide their life. Nepenthes has a characteristic of a modified leaves tip and serves to trap insects or other small animals. Overall, Nepenthes has five forms of pitcher shape, including the shape of jar, oval, cylinder, funnel and waist. The pitcher shape variation is used as the main character to distinguish between species one with other species. The pitcher shapes should be a concern because the variation on pitcher shape typical with the species identity. During this time, the diversity of Nepenthes morphology has been only described verbally. This characterization method has not been able to accurately describe variations of pitcher because the explanation is still un-consistency or biased. Verbal descriptions such as the length, width, height, size and color variations of pitcher still in controversy for species identification because it has not been standardized yet. In addition, the verbal description cannot directly reconstruct the form effect of the subjectivities of scoring. Another method that can be used to study pitcher variation is by quantitative analysis using mathematical formulas and coordinates (landmarks) to represent the dimension of the form (geometric morphometric). Geometric morphometric analysis is a technique of multivariate forms which capable to maintain accurate biological forms. By using this approach, pitcher shape variations can be optimally described, otherwise the reconstruction of the form is no longer biased and depends on the interpretation/assumption of each describer. The purpose of this research is to analyse quantitatively the pitcher shape of Nepenthes using some geometric morphometric devices in the form of 2 dimension (with coordinates x, y): landmark based method and 3-dimensional form (with coordinates x, y, z). This geometric morphometric application is expected to clarify the previous verbal description more accurately. The relationship between the shape and direction (coordinate) the variation of the pitcher shape can be determined from this quantitative result. In addition, geometric morphometric approaches is expected to be a method that can facilitate the identification and classification of Nepenthes. This study led to a more accurate characterization of the Nepenthes species, with the identification of valid diagnostic characters. We hope this method can be a powerfull tools to solve the problem of taxonomical identification of Nepenthes.
Keywords: geometric morphometric, landmark, Nepenthes, pitcher shape
Yupi Isnaini, Center of Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Gardens Indonesian Institute of Science Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 13 Bogor West Java INDONESIA Email: email@example.com
In Vitro Propagation of Nepenthes spp. in Bogor Botanic Gardens
Pitcher plants (Nepenthes spp.) are unusual carnivorous plant species that attract great public interest. However, the genus Nepenthes is listed in Appendix I and II of CITES and some of its species are categorized as endangered in the IUCN Red List. Bogor Botanic Gardens has conserved eight species of Nepenthes, less than 20% of a total of 64 species distributed throughout Indonesia. Five species have been propagated by in vitro culture technique; namely, N. ampullaria, N. gracilis, N. mirabilis, N. rafflesiana, and N. reinwardtiana. Cultured stocks of Nepenthes spp. were regularly sub-cultured from a modified Murashige and Scoog (MS) basic media to different concentrations of the media. Some of the media contained food coloring; red, yellow, green, purple and orange. The products were disseminated to the public by expo, workshops, and displays in the Garden Shop at Bogor Botanic Gardens. In total, 2801 bottles of cultured Nepenthes were produced in a year, and 1861 or 66.4% of these were sold in the Garden Shop of Bogor Botanic Garden. Nepenthes ampullaria was the most popular species.
Keywords: CITES, in vitro culture, pitcher plant, Nepenthes
Christian Dietz, Germany
South African Drosera
South Africa is well known for a wide range of Drosera species. Currently more than 20 species are known. The focus in this lecture will be on Drosera species from the Western Cape with a short excursion to KwaZulu-Natal in the east of South Africa. During my four travels to South Africa I had the chance to see and picture many Drosera’s from that region. The lecture will give some basic information on each species combined with pictures taken in their habitat as well as a rough overview of their distribution within South Africa. Species presented in this lecture will be (amongst others) for example D. cistiflora, D. capensis, D. regia, D. ericgreenii and D. Ramentacea.
Keywords: South African sundew, Drosera
Dr. Joachim Nerz, Jägerstraße 50 firstname.lastname@example.org
Nepenthes in their habitats
Specimen of the genus Nepenthes inhabit a wide range of habitats in SE-Asia. So, they can be found directly hangig at the limestone-cliffs at the coast, likle e.g. Nepenthes treubiana up to ridges of some of the hightest mountains in New Guinea like Doormans Top, where Nepenthes lamii is growing on ridges at 3520 m about sea-level and where freezing in the pitchers has been recorded from the first expeditions. Several lowland-species in SE-Asia are pretty widespread and fairly common; mostly they can be found at the edges of forest, like Nepenthes ampullaria, Nepenthes gracilis or the most widespread of all Nepenthes -Nepenthes mirabilis. For these generalists, even secondary habitats like roadbanks bear oftenly suitable habitats; in contrast to these pretty adaptive species, most Nepenthes are much more selective, concerning their habitats, like e.g. species, which just can ben found on some few limestone-cliffs, like e.g. Nepenthes northiana or Nepenthes mapuluensis or the very sensitive and unique Nepenthes campanulata, which is just growing at the always wet calc-sinter on permanently wet limestonewalls. The endemic Nepenthes clipeata on Mt. Kelam, which is nowadays nearly extinct is highly adapted to the grassy pockets on the nearly vertical cliffs of this unique granitic mountain and the enigmatic Nepenthes paniculata so far just has been found on a single open ridge, surrounded by a huge tropical rainforest. Some of the most spectacular Nepenthes like Nepenthes rajah seem to be highly adapted to ultramafic soils.
The hightest diversity of Nepenthes-species can be found in tropical montane forests in between 1800 and 2500 m alt.; these wet and moist elvin-forests bear the perfect habitat for Nepenthes. Especially Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines show a great variety of species in these habitats. Several new species of Nepenthes have been found during expeditions in recent years. Due to the isolation of the mountain-peaks, most of these species just can be found in a small range, oftenly only at the ridge of one or of some few mountains. In these perfect habitats, oftenly 4 or 5 species can be found growing side by side in its own niche, so, e.g. the ground-pitchers of several species are burried oftenly in sphagnum-moss, perfectly adapted for catching ants and other small crawling insects. Other species are oftenly growing epiphtytic, rooting in the thick masses of moss on the branches of the trees in these wet habitats; their mostly yellow pitches are adaptd to catch flying insects. Mostly the more gracile species like Nepenthes inermis and Nepenthes dubia can be found growing epiphytic, but also such big and specacular species like e.g. Nepenthes ephippata oftenly can be found growing epiphytic, high up in the trees. The author wants to give an impression of the diversity of haibtats from very common lowland habitats to very unique habitats, where some species just can be found on some few square-meters.
Laurent Taerwe, Belgium
Conservation of Nepenthes in situ
Poaching from wild populations is a growing threat to many Nepenthes species, not only in lowland areas but also on some of the most remote mountains of Southeast Asia. There is an increasing demand for Nepenthes and other plants on local and foreign markets. Habitat loss and land-use change often results in the growing exploitation of the resources of the vulnerable habitats where Nepenthes grow. Climate change is playing an increasing factor which can be seen already in certain populations. What is the importance of cultivation and horticulture for the conservation of Nepenthes? What can we do as a hobbyists? Which role does CITES and IUCN play in this conservation story?
Dr. Simon Poppinga, Plant Biomechanics Group & Botanic Garden Freiburg, University of Freiburg
These plants suck -Biomechanics, functional morphology and diversity of bladderwort (Utricularia spp.) traps
Bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lamiales) possess the fastest traps among carnivorous plants. Within about half a millisecond prey is sucked into the "bladder", a process which is much too fast to be processed by the human eye. I will show how these ultrafast suction devices function mechanically and how they are designed to overcome their prey. My talk will be accompanied by high-speed videos showing prey capture and trap movement in high temporal resolution. Moreover, I will show that there exists a great diversity of trap types in this genus. In conclusion, the Utricularia trap generally is a mechanically highly complex and functionally very robust device which leaves its prey virtually no chance to escape.
Caroline R. Schöner, Michael G. Schöner, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Germany
Interactions between carnivorous pitcher plants and bats on Borneo
Carnivorous plants are unlikely to serve as habitats – nevertheless they do. Borneo’s pitcher plants (Nepenthes) provide shelters for numerous animals like insects, amphibians and even mammals as can be seen in the tiny bat species Kerivoula hardwickii. These bats roost in the pitcher-shaped trapping organs of several Nepenthes species. Only one of them – Nepenthes hemsleyana – provides roosts of high quality. In return N. hemsleyana benefits from its mammalian lodgers by gaining up to 95 % of its total nitrogen from bat faeces. In feeding experiments we found out that N. hemsleyana plants fed with bat guano have increased growth and photosynthesis rates compared to control plants. However, both the bats and the pitcher plants are rare and occur in dense peat swamp forests. To maintain their symbiotic benefits, both partners are thus faced with the problem to find each other regularly. We found out that N. hemsleyana is attracting bats with an echo-reflecting structure at the plants’ pitchers. Such a structure is missing both in closely related and sympatric Nepenthes species. This is the first example that a plant advertises itself acoustically as roost to bats.
Damien Jouen, France
Nepenthes; Symbioses with bats
Drosera from the Lasiocephala sug-genus (also called wooly sundews) are endemic from Northern Australia. Some species like D.petiolaris and D.banksii can even be found as far as New-Guinea and the Philippines. In their habitats, these plants grow under tropical conditions. During the wet season, the soil stay very wet and can be partially flooded whereas temperatures are high. In contrast, the soil and especially its upper layer can become totally arid throughout the dry period while average temperatures reduce significantly. With this lecture, Damien will try to share his experiments in growing these Drosera indoor. He will present his setup and explain some methods to grow them sucessfully during the growing/dormancy periods and through the transition between both phases. Some details will be given also regarding the different ways of propagation that are applicable. Finally, he will present his attempts of hybridization.